Nate the Lawyer did an excellent job on this top. I summarized it below.

The Supreme Court recently made a landmark decision on affirmative action, specifically concerning the use of race in college admissions. Students for Fair Admissions sued the University of North Carolina and Harvard, questioning whether public and private colleges can continue to consider race in their admissions process.

To understand affirmative action, we need to look back at the history of racial segregation in the United States. The Supreme Court’s previous decision in Plessy v. Ferguson in 1896 allowed racial segregation under the “separate but equal” doctrine. However, in 1954, Brown v. Board of Education declared racial discrimination illegal in state schools.

After Brown v. Board of Education, black and minority students faced limited access to professional schools, like law and medical schools. To address this inequality, colleges began implementing affirmative action policies, which aimed to include black students by considering race in admissions.

The Supreme Court has made adjustments to how race can be considered in admissions over time. In 1977, in Regents of the University of California v. Bakke, the Court rejected the use of race as an essential element and required schools to use race-neutral means. In 1997, in Grutter v. Bollinger, the Court ruled that race could be a factor in creating a diverse student body as a temporary fix for past discrimination.

However, in the recent Students for Fair Admissions v. University of North Carolina and Harvard case, the Supreme Court ruled that race cannot be used as a factor in college admissions. This decision effectively ended the use of affirmative action, marking a significant policy shift.

It’s important to note that some states have already banned race-based admissions. California and Texas, for example, implemented alternative policies. Texas uses the “top 10” policy, where students in the top 10 percent of their high school graduating class gain automatic admission to public universities. California saw a decrease in minority students attending elite schools but an increase in attendance at other in-state universities.

The Supreme Court’s ruling has sparked a debate on the impact of ending affirmative action. Some argue it is time to move away from using race in admissions, while others believe that minorities still face challenges and that affirmative action should continue. Notably, even some liberals have expressed support for the Court’s ruling.

In conclusion, affirmative action has evolved over the years from an essential element to a factor among criteria in admissions. However, the recent Supreme Court decision has put an end to the use of race. The effects of the ruling and the future of affirmative action remain topics of ongoing debate.